Practitioners 49: Jack Kirby (Part 1)

Jack Kirby was born Jacob Kurtzberg on August 28, 1917, in New York City. His parents, Rose and Benjamin Kurtzberg, were Austrian Jewish immigrants, and his father earned a living as a garment factory worker. Growing up on Suffolk Street, Kirby was often involved in street fights with other kids, later saying that “fighting became second nature. I began to like it.”

Throughout his youth, Kirby wanted to get out of his neighbourhood. Knowing how to draw he sought out places to learn more about art. Essentially self taught from a very young age, Kirby was by comic strip artists Milton Cariff, Hal Foster and Alex Raymond as well as editorial cartoonists such as C.H. Sykes, ‘Ding’ Darling and Rollin Kirby, the first winner of the Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Cartooning. In the shadow of the depression, people had found the capacity to improve their circumstances and those who looked were beginning to find them again. It was the American Dream certainly. But it was Kirby’s dream too.

Steve Canyon by Milton Caniff, in a style very close to that developed by Kirby in later years

Kirby claims he was rejected by the Educational Alliance because he drew ‘ to fast with charcoal’. He eventually found an outlet for his skills by drawing cartoons for the newspaper of the Boys Brotherhood Republic, an astonishing sounding ‘miniature city’ on East 3rd Street where kids ran their own government. This no doubt inspired the Newsboy Legion, a hustle of likely kids that have been repeated several times by both Jon Bogdanove in Superman for DC and Grant Morrison in the Seven Soldiers crossover event in 2009.

Kirby enrolled at the Pratt Institute in Brooklyn, one of the leading undergraduate art schools in the United States today, at what he says was the age of 14. He left after a week, dismissing the factory line nature of the teaching at the time. Speaking about that time Kirby said, “I wasn’t the kind of student that Pratt was looking for. They wanted people who would work on something forever. I didn’t want to work on any project forever. I intended to get things done.”

According to Kirby’s occasionally unreliable memory, Kirby joined the Lincoln Newspaper Syndicate in 1936, working on comic strips and single-panel advice cartoons such as Your Health Comes First!! This he did under the pseudonym Jack Curtiss, the first of a great many name changes throughout his career. Kirby reacted angrily at any suggestion that it was an attempt to cover up his Jewish heritage throughout his career. He began to work for movie animation company Fleischer Studios as an inbetweener (an artist who fills in the action between major-movement frames) on Popeye cartoons. This was something Kirby couldn’t tolerate, seeing at understandably as a menial job. “I went from Lincoln to Fleischer,” he recalled. “From Fleischer I had to get out in a hurry because I couldn’t take that kind of thing,” describing it as “a factory in a sense, like my father’s factory. They were manufacturing pictures.”

Fliescher Popeye Inking Chart, reinforcing Kirby's opinion that his work at Fliescher animation was factory-like.

At the time the comics industry was booming. Today the sales figures of the early 90s are considered impressive if they hit 500,000. In the late 1930s and early 1940s companies could expect sales figures in their millions. This was the industry Kirby stepped into as young man, starting at Eisner & Iger, one of a handful of firms creating comics on demand to publishers. It was here that Kirby remembered as his first comic book work, for Wild Boy Magazine. Wild boy, Jumbo Comics and other Eisner-Iger clients gave Kirby the chance to work on numerous titles something we can only assume he achieved admirably. He used the various strips to test out any number of pseudonyms such as ‘Curt Davis’ for The Diary of Dr Hayward, or as ‘Fred Sande’ for the western crime fighter strip Wilton of the West, he returned to ‘Jack Curtiss’ for the swashbuckling Count of Monte Cristo and for the humour strips Abdul Jones he drew as ‘Ted Grey’ and with Socko the Dog simply as ‘Teddy’. Ultimately though, he settle on the pen name Jack Kirby because it reminded him of actor James Cagney.

In the summer of 1940, Kirby and his family moved to Brooklyn. There, Kirby met Rosalind “Roz” Goldstein, who lived in his family’s apartment building. The pair began dating soon afterward. Kirby proposed to Goldstein on her eighteenth birthday, and the two became engaged. However, there was one other partnership that Kirby would enter into that would change the face of popular comic books forever and provide the world with one of it’s most iconic figures.

Working with comic-book publisher and newspaper syndicator Fox Feature Syndicate, earning a then-reasonable $15 a week salary, Kirby began to investigate the superhero narrative with the comic book Blue Beetle, published January to March 1940, starring a character created by the pseudonymous Charles Nicholas, a house name that Kirby retained for the full three month strip. During this period, Kirby met and began collaborating with cartoonist and Fox editor Joe Simon, who worked freelance as well as his staff work. In 1988, Simon recalled, “I loved Jack’s work and the first time I saw it I couldn’t believe what I was seeing. He asked if we could do some freelance work together. I was delighted and I took him over to my little office. We worked from the second issue of Blue Bolt…”

It was then that Kirby and Simon met what-would-be Marvel Comics, then Martin Goodman’s Timely Comics. Joe Simon had concieved the idea of Captain America and made a sketch, writing the name ‘Super American’ at the bottom of the page. Simon felt there were too many ‘Supers’ around but very few Captains. Presenting it to Martin Goodman the go-ahead was given but trying to fill a full comic with primarily one character’s stories, Simon did not believe that his regular creative partner, Kirby, could handle the workload alone. Two young artists from Conneticut had made a strong impression, Al Avison and Al Gabriele having worked together regularly and proven they could adapt to each others styles.

Simon recalled, ‘The two Als were eager to join in on the new Captain America book, but Jack Kirby was visibly upset. ‘You’re still number one, Jack,’ I assured him. ‘It’s just a matter of a quick deadline for the first issue.’

‘I’ll make the deadline,’ Jack promised. ‘I’ll pencil it [all] myself and make the deadline.’ I hadn’t expected this kind of reaction … but I acceded to Kirby’s wishes and, it turned out, was lucky that I did. There might have been two Als, but there was only one Jack Kirby.’

You can imagine the dull thunder of New York outside somewhere as the image of Captain America was formed at the hands of Jack Kirby, the bombs of the War in Europe also audible to him. A full year before Pearl Harbour was attacked both Kirby and Simon were morally repulsed by the actions of Nazi Germany in the years leading up to the United States’ involvement in World War II and felt war was inevitable: “The opponents to the war were all quite well organised. We wanted to have our say too.”

Aware that he was creating a political figure, Kirby generated an iconic figure, broad shouldered and powerful, incorporating the red, white and blue, the stars and stripes, the eagle wings (however small) and the bright red boots that have survived almost unaltered for 70 years. The first Captain America comic in early 1941 saw him punching Hitler squarely in the jaw at the heart of a Nazi headquarters.

Simon negotiated 15% of profits for both he and Kirby as well as salaried positions as the company’s editor and art director, respectively. The first issue sold out in days, the second print run set at over 1 million copies. This enormous success established this creative team as a formidable creative force in the industry. After the first issue, Simon asked Kirby to join the staff as Art Director.

With the success of Captain America, Simon felt that Goodman wasn’t paying them the promised percentage of profits and so found work for them both at the National Comics (later to be called DC). Kirby and Simon negotiated a deal that would secure them $500 a week, compared to the $75 and $85 they respectively earned at Timely. Keeping the deal secret, fearing that Goodman wouldn’t pay them what was owed if he discovered their approach to National, both Kirby and Simon continued to work on Captain America. Goodman in fact did become aware of their plans and both of them left after Captain America #10. Kirby and Simon were leaving behind the highlight of their partnership, though Captain America wouldn’t return fully for some years yet.

The first few weeks at National were spent trying to devise new characters while the company sought to figure out how to utilise the pair. After a few failed editor-assigned ghosting assignments, National’s Jack Leibowitz simply told them to ‘just do what you want’. The pair then revamped the Sandman figure in Adventure Comics and created the superhero Manhunter. Not the Martian Manhunter, Kirby and Simon created a character that became adapted, represented by numerous alter egos and finally depersonified throughout the decades, Kirby’s original design returned nearly completely unaltered with the Manhunters, creations of the Guardians of the Universe as a forerunner to the Green Lantern Corps, most prominent in the recent Blackest Night saga. The ongoing ‘kid gang’ series Boy Commandos was to be their biggest hit, launched in the same year to become a national feature, selling more than a million copies a month and becoming National’s third best- selling title. They also scored a hit with the homefront kid-gang, the Newsboy Legion in Star Spangled Comics.

Kirby married Roz Goldstein on May 23, 1942. The same year that he married, he changed his name legally from Jacob Kurtzberg to Jack Kirby.

The war had been brought to American shores. Pearl Harbour was bombed by Japan and the US, after several years of tacit support to Britain through supply could no longer remove itself from armed conflict. Jack Kirby was going to war.

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Practitioners 33: Ivan Reis

Born in 1975, Rodrigo Ivan Dos Reis was born in Sao Paolo, Brazil and is a penciller with projects under his wing for Marvel, Chaos! but most prominently – and most recently – DC.

Blackest Night

For three years, Reis worked under Mauricio de Sousa in Brazil. De Souza is a prominent cartoonist who has created 200 characters for his popular series of children’s comic books. His characters are more Jeff Smith than Alan Davis and Neal Adams (as recent collaborator Geoff Johns described Reis’ drawing style) but clearly this time under the tutelage of such a prolific cartoonist taught the young Reis lessons in productivity.

He began his international career for Dark Horse working on titles such as Ghost, starting with Issue 17 and acting as regular artist until the title ended at Issue 36. During his tenure working on Ghost, he also worked on The Mask, Time Cop and Xena. Later, he worked for Lightning Comics (a fairly shameless comic company from the mid-nineties that offered nude variant covers for their female character titles; Hellina, Catfight and other female heroines).

For Vertigo, Reis pencilled an issue of Grant Morrison’s The Invisibles. He became better known for his work on Lady Death for Chaos! Comics. Written by Brian Pulido, Len Kaminski and Bryan Augustin, Reis drew for the title for three years (from 1999 to 2002). Lady Death was a Previews favourite, enjoying large scale pre orders and carrying a lot of popularity from the success of the nineties. It was from this good girl art that Reis enjoyed popularity, however it would be in working on much more unconventional artwork for a mainstream title that Reis would find legendary fame.

For Marvel, Reis worked on the Thing & She-Hulk: the Long Night, Avengers Icons: Vision, Captain Marvel, Iron Man, Defenders and Avengers. It was on Avengers Icons: Vision that Geoff Johns worked with Ivan Reis for the first time and formed a partnership that would literally turn a major publisher on its head and redefine the popularity of a 60 year old character.

It was with DC, after a series of short stints on a number of titles that Reis arrived at Green Lantern volume 4. A well known but slightly unnoticed character in the DC Universe, the number of Volumes was indicative of GL’s troubled past as a title. Consistently reinvented and repackaged, the story of Hal Jordan; test pilot and interstellar police officer with a magic ring had been transposed regularly. Driven nuts and killed in the 90s as part of the Return of Superman storyline and replaced by another character entirely noone was expecting great things from Green Lantern. However, under Geoff Johns the title was beginning to pick up considerable pace. The scope of the burdgeoning conflict and the introduction (after 60 years!!) of the idea that there might be other rings of alternative colour out in the universe that represented danger broadened the scope of the title considerably. Reis worked from Issue 11-38 alongside Geoff Johns, presiding over the introduction of the now famous Sinestro Corps storyline that kicked off the enormous Blackest Night storyline.

Throughout all of this Reis maintained an even tiller at all times. As Johns clearly became increasingly convinced of Reis’ capacity to produce highly detailed and dramatic artwork at incredibly short notice the scope of the title gained considerable pace. More than pure talent, Reis offered Johns a reliable and dependable creative crucible from which to expand the embryonic saga that would incorporate the entire DC Universe.

Not only in Green Lantern but in the Rann / Thanagar War mini series (written by Dave Gibbons) Reis demonstrated an incredible eye for detail, composition and anatomy. His grasp of an empty page allowed him to fill the page with hundreds of variant starship of a multitude of designs, realise the designs of almost limitless alien characters and still maintain scale and scope as a hole in the size of the universe was torn open by giant hands. The requests placed on Reis in the Rann / Thanagar war show a resolute faith in Reis’ capacity to complete the storyline and present it effectively. The complexity of what Reis has been continuously asked to do on behalf of multiple DC writers suggests that writers, if told that Reis is the assigned artist, know that they can let their imaginations run wild. In an industry that still relies on deadlines, even with increasing expectations being placed on artists in terms of quality and precision – that truly is priceless.

Reis simply makes it work. Whatever the script demands appears and is perfectly well realised. Features are precise and emphatic, representing the thoughts and feelings expected in any scenario. If thousands of figures are required they are provided in bold detail. Increased objects on a page in no way denotes how much or how little detail is applied either. In Reis’ work there are no shortcuts.

Green Lantern threw up yet more challenges. In order to create Red, Orange, Sinestro, Blue, Indigo and Violet corps/tribes each had to have all original characters, each with their own specific designs and detailing. Reis not only designed his own but then enhanced the work of others, adapting them into his own naturalistic style without losing the dynamism of the work being done in GL’s sister title, Green Lantern Corps. As the title that centred the epic, Reis was handling hundreds of different alien designs, at least 7 variants of uniform and insignia design which was then extrapolated and different for each different character of any shape in any Corps, as well as the introduction of DC’s Hall of Heroes as well.

It was with Blackest Night, the final part of the epic that Reis came into his own. 7 Lantern Corps, the entire frontline cast of DC, alien entities, dynamic twists, almost unlimited environments, all colliding on Earth. Reis didn’t miss a panel. Consistent, epic, engaging and faultless – cities collapsed, Lanterns were born, literally thousands of dead aliens fell from the sky, people turned to salt – all of it was incredibly realised at the hands of Reis. Whether it was stormy coastlines in battles against undead merpeople and sharks or porting into a Telephone call centre, Reis struck the right chord in every single scenario.

In Blackest Night his lack of ego and professionalism was there for all to see. It was never about quick tricks or advertising himself as artist but realising as perfectly as possible the best way to present an enormous, sprawling epic, incorporating literally hundreds of characters and incredible events. Reis proved himself a true Practitioner by being put in the spotlight and never missing a beat. His art is so advanced, every aspect of it so precise and well realised that it is impossible almost to fathom how he achieved it in the short time available to him. That is the mark of the true artist, to move beyond what can be done and instead extend to what is needed.

The cast of Brightest Day - Geoff Johns' and Ivan Reis' follow up to Blackest Night

Ivan Reis could’ve come from nowhere (as his Wikipedia profile suggests). His pencil work is now synonomous with the most prominent work being put into the public eye. Seemingly without faltering he has drawn every member of the DC Universe and incorporated a thousand different species into the Green Lantern Corps, a feat that the Green Lantern movie with literally hundreds of technicians and special effects experts are struggling to bring to the big screen. Ivan Reis is the epitomy of big thinking artists.

Stan Lee Awards 2011 (part 1)

Mark Millar’s been playing his Kapow cards pretty close to his chest in recent weeks in preparation for next Monday’s promised mega announcement about the convention. But at least there’s at least one bit of news that we won’t have to wait until the 14th for: the Stan Lee Award nominations are here!

The Stans are a new award, created for Kapow that are designed to celebrate mainstream comics in all their glory. While the Eisners have traditionally championed lesser known books and creators, the Stans have their sights set firmly on the mass market. Abstract comics about the plight of Spanish chair makers can be extremely good, but you won’t find them anywhere on this list. Nor indeed will you find anything by Millar himself as, being the organiser of the awards, he’s chosen to remove himself from the nominations list.

The list of people responsible for nominating attests to this mainstream quality as well. A quick scan of the publications that participated will bring up names like IGN, Empire, The News of The World (insert phone tapping joke here) and Forbidden Planet. Seth Rogan even makes an appearance to help add some star power to the list.

So we know what they are, now let’s dig into the nominations themselves:

Best Writer

Brian Michael Bendis

Robert Kirkman

Grant Morrison

Garth Ennis

We said it was a list for big names and you don’t get much bigger than some of the names here. Bendis and Morrison are pretty much Marvel and DC’s respective frontmen at the moment so you it’s a pretty good indication of where the rest of the list is going. Not that this is a bad thing, there’s a reason that these guys are big names. I think it’s a shame to see Dan Abnett and Andy Lanning missing out on a nod as their work on Marvel’s cosmic books has been superb, but I guess you can’t have all your favs there.

My heart is with Kirkman on this as I’m a massive fan of the Walking Dead, but if I were a betting man then I think the smart money would have to be on Morrison. Batman Inc may not be everyone’s cup of bat-tea but there’s no denying that his run with the character has been nothing short of monumental. Plus he killed My Chemical Romance, which is bound to score him a few votes.

I’d have to peg Bendis as an outsider in this race. Marvel’s top guy has given us some cool moments over the last twelve months but I’m hard pressed to think of anything that really lives up to the best stuff we’ve seen from him in the past. That said, he remains the king of banter and Bendis off form is still better than most writers at their best, so don’t count him out too early.

Ennis? I think he may just be a bit too indy for this award. I’d like to be proven wrong but I think you’d be taking a chance betting on the Preacher’s horse.

BTB pick for Best Writer - Grant Morrison

Best Artist

JH Williams III

Steve McNiven

Duncan Fegredo

John Romita Jr.

McNiven is flat out one of my favorite artists and his work on Old Man Logan is frankly breath-taking, however I have a feeling that Kick Ass is going to come through and win it for Romita. If it does go that way then it’ll be well deserved. Kick Ass is, to my mind, Romita’s best work and it’s a true example of a book where you honestly couldn’t imagine another artist taking it on. Old Man Logan is amazing but it’s hard to bet against a man when a character he designed is on the side of every bus in the western hemisphere.

Interestingly Fegredo’s nomination makes it two nominations for he and Jonathan Ross’s Turf, an impressive feat for a relatively small book.

Edit – Ducan Fegredo is, of course, the current artist on Hellboy and not Turf. That honour belongs to Tommy Lee Edwards. I shall now go read Ultimates 3 six times as penance for the error.

BTB Pick: Best Artist - John Romita Jr.

Best Series

The Walking Dead

Batman & Robin

Avengers

Batman Inc.

Well with two nominations in one category, you’ve got to favour Morrison here, but I have a feeling that Walking Dead may just sneak it. Batman and Robin has been fantastic this year but a lot of people are still having a little trouble buying Dick Grayson as the caped crusader and the lack of jumping on points for new readers could hurt the series chances. Add into that the fact that the awards are being decided by an online poll and you have to give the edge to the web darling that is Kirkman’s zombie-opus.

Batman Inc surprised me a little bit with its nomination here. It’s groundbreaking for sure, but it’s also pulled a lot of flak for being too similar to some of Morrison’s earlier work on X-Men and I’m surprised to see it edging out books like Secret Avengers and Invincible Iron Man.

Avengers sells a lot of books, but I suspect that most of those sales are to people who, like me, just want to stay abreast of what’s happening in the Marvel universe. It consistently pulls in the lowest ratings from critics of all the Avengers titles and, while it’s an entertaining read, I just don’t see it competing with the other nominees in this category.

BTB Pick for Best Series - The Walking Dead

Best Superhero or SciFi Movie

Scott Pilgim

Kick-Ass

Inception

Iron Man 2

I was really surprised when I looked at this list because I’d honestly forgotten just how good a year it’s been for comic book movies. I’d happily see any one of these walk off with a prize but I have a feeling that three of the contenders are going to resent the “SciFi” part of the category title. Simply put, Inception is just in a different class to its rivals here. As awesome as the other three are, Chris Nolan’s masterpiece simply outshines them. Heck it outshines pretty much every movie of any type released this year.

Again though, Internet fans can be a strange bunch and I wouldn’t put it past a hardcore contingent of Pilgrim or Kick-Ass fans to get together and pull off a coup. Not that that would be a terrible thing. Inception is set to clean house at the Oscars and has already made more money than the gdp of a small country, in the face of that it might be nice to see a true comic book movie take the prize.

 

BTB Pick for best film - Inception

Best Trade

Sweet Tooth Vol.1

Dark X-Men

Fantastic Four – Solve Everything

Blackest Night

It’s hard to see anything edging out Blackest Night in this category. Dark X-Men has a decent slice of fans but on the whole I think that Blackest Night is just too high profile to overcome. That said, Blackest Night could run into problems due the fact that it doesn’t make a whole lot of sense by itself and relies on you buying two or three other trades in order to get the whole story (seriously DC, would it kill you to just do a Messiah Complex and organize the issues by when they happen rather than by which book they happened in?) but ultimately I think it’ll take it. To be fair on Blackest Night, it’s one of the better crossovers in recent years so I think it’s fair that it pulls some recognition.

Sweet Tooth is a great book but it doesn’t have the fanbase to win a poll like this. Bet on it only if you’re feeling very lucky.

BTB Pick for Best Trade - Blackest Night

Best Limited Series or Story Arc

Batman & Robin Must Die

Avengers Prime

Dr. Strange

Brightest Day

I’ve been reading a lot of praise for Dr Strange as of late, but I really can’t see anything on this list which I’d consider a serious challenger to Batman & Robin Must Die. Morrison’s reworking of the Dynamic Duo has just been issue upon issue of solid gold and this arc is no exception.

Brightest Day does have its moments and I wouldn’t put it past a few hardcore fans to try and throw a spanner into the works here, but ultimately I think the title’s just been a bit too hit and miss. Let’s face it, 52 it ain’t.

BTB Pick for Best Story Arc - Batman & Robin Must Die

That’s all for today. Pop back tomorrow for the rest of the list and more hot tips from your chums in the Bunker.

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